Copyright ©1991, 1992, 1995-97 Hewlett-Packard Corporation.
1.0 Introduction | 2.0 Latin Text and Display | 3.0 Latin Hand Written
4.0 Latin Decorative | 5.0 Latin Pictoral | 6.0 Summary of Variables
7.0 Calculated Variables | 8.0 PANOSE Submission Form
9.0 PANOSE Classification Sheet
6.0 Summary of Variables
The height of the ARing character, “Å” (Figure 14) is used to evaluate diacritical treatment. This is a vertical measurement and is taken from the baseline to the upper extent of the uppercase A portion of the ARing glyph. This measurement does not include the size of the ring. In the cases where the ring is joined to the uppercase A portion of the character, the measurement should be taken from the baseline to the lower extent of the inner white-space of the ring. The AAcTall measurement is used to determine X-height.
The ACap (Figure 10) variable measures the amount of flatness at the apex of the uppercase A. Most often, this is a simple horizontal measurement taken at the upper extent of the letterform. In more sophisticated designs, it may be necessary to take this measurement at an angle along a theoretical edge for the upper apex. It is common to have a font design that contains no flatness at the apex of the uppercase A glyph, or where the apex is highly rounded. In these cases, zero flatness is assigned. The ACap measurement is used to determine Midline.
The thickness of the left diagonal stem of the uppercase A is described by the ArmAHi and ArmALo (Figure 10) variables. These measurements are taken by projecting the theoretical stem edges of the left stem out to the baseline and capline of the letter. The ArmAHi measurement is then determined by measuring the thickness of the stroke at the capline. Similarly, the ArmALo is measured at the baseline. Both measurements are taken perpendicular to a line that depicts the middle of the stem. The ArmAHi and ArmALo measurements are used to determine Arm Style.
The curvature of the diagonal arms is captured by the ArmCurv (Figure 10) variable. This measurement is taken at the mid point of an imaginary line which is drawn from the point where the left theoretical edge of the uppercase A intersects the baseline and capline. This line will often be coincident with the edge of the stem; the cases when this is not true need to be measured. The measurement is taken from the mid point of the imaginary line to the actual left edge of the stem. In the case of a concave stem this will result in a negative number, in the case of a bowed stem this will result in a positive number. The ArmCurv measurement is used to determine Arm Style.
This variable is a point-count variable similar to the CutCount field specified in the Arm Style digit. In this case the corners, rounded or square, of the left and right sides of the apex of the uppercase A are counted. A count of 1 is always entered for the single corner at the apex. The ASerL and ASerR (Figure 10) measurements are used to determine Midline.
CapH(Figure 2) is the cap height and it is measured on the uppercase H, from the top-most Y-extent to the bottom-most Y-extent along the theoretical midline of the left vertical stroke. The midline is chosen to avoid serifs that extend the height or depth of the character shape. This is a vertical measurement regardless of whether the character is italic or oblique. The CapH measurement is used to determine Serif Style, Weight, Proportion, Arm Style, and Midline.
Many uppercase A glyph designs allow the right arm to project through the left arm at the apex of the letterform. Subsequently, that projected stem is then cut back to lessen its visual prominence. The angle at which the stem is cut back is recorded in the CapPitch (Figure 10) variable, which is determined by measuring the angle of the theoretical tip of the uppercase A. This measurement will generally be between 0 and 90 degrees, and should be taken on any design where the upper extent of the right diagonal arm creates a surface that is not a rounding point for the apex. The CapPitch measurement is used to determine Midline.
The CentDist variable is needed to classify those designs that place the visual center of the fully round letterforms off true center. This measurement is taken by measuring the vertical distance from the baseline to the point at which the edge of the glyph reaches the right-most extent of the letterform. The line that defines the right-most extent must be skewed to match the character slant for this measurement. The CentDist measurement is used to determine Letterform.
The two CutCount (Figure 11) variables depict the number of corners at both terminations of the uppercase C. This measurement is only applied to serif letter forms and indicates the amount of serif detailing at the ends of the stroke. The procedure for this variable is loosely defined so as not to impede the simple goal of this attribute. Each surface of the detail at the termination of the C that is not a part of the major curve of the glyph is determined. From these surfaces the corners are counted and those counts determine the values for the CutCount variables. This process is completed for both the upper and lower termination of the uppercase C. The CutCountHi and CutCountLo measurements are used to determine Arm Style.
The angle of termination on an uppercase C for a sans serif glyph is stored as the CutPitch (Figure 12). This measurement is not taken on serif letterforms. The angle produced by the two points that terminate the upper stroke of the uppercase C is used to describe this variable. The left-most of the two points is used as the fulcrum of the angle. In the case of a highly rounded corner style at the termination of the stroke, the theoretical edge of the stroke must be determined and its angle recorded. The treatment of the lower termination of the stroke is not factored into this attribute. The CutPitch measurement is used to determine Arm Style.
Drop(Figure 3) is the most difficult serif measurement to determine. It applies to serif designs and cannot be measured on a serif whose HipRad value is equal to the SerWidL value. Drop assumes that there is a straight line between the left edge of the serif tip and the lowest extent of the HipRad. Drop measures the vertical distance from the top of the serif tip to the point tangent to the bottom of the cove curve. As with the other serif detail measurements, this measurement is taken on the uppercase I. The Drop measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The EOut(Figure 5) measurement is taken horizontally from the left-most X-extent of the theoretical backbone (i.e. excluding serif) to the right-most X-extent of the serif on the upper-most arm of the uppercase E. The EOut measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
EWid(Figure 5) is a horizontal measurement that indicates the general width of the uppercase E, and is based on the point that the serif on the glyph loses tangency with the character height. This measurement is taken at the cap height line from the left-most extent of the theoretical stem edge on the uppercase E, discounting the serif, to the right-most extent of the serif. For fonts whose uppercase E stem is bowed or curved, the x-position of the left edge of the stem is placed average to the right and left extremes of the stem discounting the protrusions of serifs. The right extent of the upper arm of the uppercase E is taken from the closest vertical point on the tip of the arm to the cap height line. The EWid measurement is used to determine Serif Style and Proportion.
The FootPitch (Figure 10) measurement records the angle at which the stem on a sans serif uppercase A is terminated. Most often the measurement will be zero indicating that the bottom of the stem is parallel to the baseline. In some cases however, the stem is terminated perpendicular to itself, resulting in a measurement less than 170 degrees. The FootPitch measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
This measurement is used to compare the overall width of the foot of a stem with the width measurement of the stem. The FootWid (Figure 3) is a horizontal measurement taken at the baseline from the left-most extent to the right-most extent of the lower serif on the uppercase I. The FootWid measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The HipRad(Figure 3) measurement describes the horizontal radius of the oval often formed when the serif connects to the stem. This measurement is taken on the uppercase I glyph. The HipRad is the distance from the theoretical left edge of the stem on the lower left serif to either the left edge of the serif or the point where the curve becomes tangent with a line extending to the left edge of the serif. The HipRad measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The HWid(Figure 2) is measured on the uppercase H, from the left theoretical stem edge of the left stem to the right theoretical stem edge of the right stem. It is taken along an imaginary line coincident with the average horizontal location of the character’s horizontal crossbar. The HWid measurement is used to determine Proportion.
This measurement is similar to the OutMid measurement, except the Inter-edge line is drawn from the upper and right-most extents of the inner ellipse of the uppercase O.
It is a common measurement error to use the wrong Inter-edge line when both the InMid(Figure 7) and the OutMid are measured on the same sample. Always verify that the correct Inter-edge line is being used for the correct variable measurement. The InMid measurement is used to determine Stroke Variation.
InRad(Figure 7) is the inside radius of the uppercase O. This horizontal measurement is taken on the same line used for OutRad, but the measurement is taken from the center of the glyph to the inside edge of the right stroke of the character. The InRad measurement is used to determine Stroke Variation.
The width of the uppercase J (Figure 9) is a horizontal measurement from the right theoretical edge of the stem to the left-most extent of the bowl or tail of the glyph, including any serif extensions on the left side. Again, in this case, since the two points may not fall on the same horizontal plane, the measurements must be skewed for non-upright glyphs. The JWid measurement is used to determine Proportion.
LTipRad is similar to UTipRad (Figure 3), but this measurement reflects the lower left hand corner of the serif tip. Again, this is a vertical measurement taken on the uppercase I character. The LTipRad measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
Like the MidE, MidA(Figure 10) represents the distance from the center of the horizontal arm of the uppercase A to the baseline. To accommodate for extravagant letterforms, this measurement is taken at the horizontal midpoint of the glyph. Again, this is a vertical measurement and is not altered for italic characters. The MidA measurement is used to determine Midline.
The MidE(Figure 5) variable specifies the distance of the center of the middle stem of the uppercase E from the baseline. This measurement is strictly vertical and is not changed for non-upright letterforms. If necessary, the measurement is also taken from the midpoint on the stem to avoid curvature or stem slanting that may be incorporated into the fonts design. The MidE measurement is used to determine Midline.
The MidH (Figure 2) may be used in place of MidE if MidE is out of character with the face.
Due to various topological changes used in the uppercase M character, the M Width (Figure 8) measurement is taken differently from the EWid(Figure 5), HWid(Figure 2), and SWid(Figure 6) measurements. The horizontal width of the uppercase M glyph is measured at the exact mid-height of the glyph from the left-most edge of the stroke on the left stem to the right-most edge of the stroke on the right stem. No approximations of theoretical edges are used for this measurement, nor are any alterations required for non-upright glyphs. The MWid measurement is used to determine Proportion.
Similar to WideO, this variable is assigned by measuring the narrowest point of the uppercase O glyph, usually the top most extent of the letter-form and, in this case, measured vertically. The NarO(Figure 7) measurement is used to determine Contrast.
OTall(Figure 7) depicts the height of the uppercase O glyph. It is a vertical measurement from the outside edge of the stroke at the top-most extent to the outside edge of the stroke at the bottom-most extent of the glyph. Skewed, italic, or oblique characters should not skew this measurement. It should remain strictly vertical. The OTall measurement is used to determine Proportion and Letterform.
There are several steps involved in determining the OutMid(Figure 7) measurement. The upper right corner of the uppercase O is used to determine the OutMid. The OutMid is a horizontal measurement that extends from the middle of the character to the character edge. Unlike the OutRad, the vertical placement of this measurement is not at the mid point of the glyph, but rather at a point specified by the intersection of a diagonal bisecting line referred to as the Inter-edge line.
The Inter-edge line is drawn from the glyph center to the intersection of two lines, one horizontal and one vertical, that indicate the vertical location of the upper extent of the character and the horizontal location of the right-most extent of the character. On a perfect circle, the resulting Inter-edge line is at a 45º angle.
With the Inter-edge line correctly drawn, the OutMid can be determined. It is a horizontal measurement taken from the horizontal mid point of the glyph to the point where the Inter-edge line intersects the outer edge of the glyph shape.
In non-upright characters, all vertical lines for measuring distances are skewed to match the oblique angle.
These two variables, OutRad and OutMid, are used to determine the curvature of the outer ellipse of the uppercase O glyph. These same measurements will be used later in the Letterform category to assign an overall character roundness value to a given font. To determine the speed of stoke transition, the curvature of the inner ellipse of the uppercase O must also be determined. The same process described above is repeated for the inside of the uppercase O glyph with InRad and InMid. The OutMid measurement is used to determine Stroke Variation and Letterform.
OutRad(Figure 7), or the outer radius, is a horizontal measurement taken on the uppercase O, from the center of the glyph to the right-most extent of the glyph shape. The OutRad measurement is used to determine Stroke Variation and Letterform.
This horizontal measurement reflects the general width of the uppercase O glyph. It is measured from the left-most extent of the left side of the stroke, to the right-most extent of the right side of the stroke. Again, as with the SWid, if a skewed, italic, or oblique font is being classified, be certain to skew the left and right locations in order to obtain a true horizontal measurement. The OWid(Figure 7) measurement is used to determine Proportion.
SerOff(Figure 3) or the serif offset is the vertical distance measured along the theoretical mid-point of the vertical stem from the intersection of that line with the edge of the glyph to the lowest extent of the serif. SerOff is zero for glyphs that rest fully on the baseline. Is this measurement is taken on the uppercase I character. The SerOff measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The height of the serif, or SerTall (Figure 3), is a vertical measurement taken on the lower left corner of the uppercase I, from the point that the serif departs from the vertical stem to the baseline. Note: The point of serif departure is obvious if printed samples are 300 dpi, but is less evident on high resolution output. The SerTall measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The height of the serif tip, SerTip (Figure 3), is measured on the lower left-most extent of the uppercase I, from the highest extent to the lowest extent of the serif. Note: SerTip is measured to the bottom of the character, not the baseline. The SerTip measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The width of the lower left serif, or SerWidL (Figure 3), is a horizontal measurement taken from the left-most extent of the serif at the base of the uppercase I, to the left edge of the vertical stem at the point of serif departure. The SerWidL measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The width of the lower right serif or, SerWidR (Figure 3), is taken horizontally from the right side of the vertical stem at the point of serif departure to the right-most X-extent of the serif on the uppercase I. The SerWidR measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The slant(Figure 2) determines whether a typeface is normal and upright or oblique in design. The Uppercase H is used to measure the angle of the glyph and is taken between the outside angle of the theoretical edge of the left leg and the baseline. The Slant measurement is used to determine Letterform.
At times the corners of a sans serif glyph’s stems are rounded instead of sharp. The StemCor (Figure 4)variable measures the horizontal radius of the lower left corner of the uppercase I. A fully rounded sans serif design would have a StemCor value equal to half the stem width. The StemCor measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
The StressLo variable is similar to the StressUp variable except that the measurements are taken on the lowercase o. The StressLo variable is used to determine Stroke Variation.
The angle of the stress of the rounded glyphs is characterized by locating the point at which the outer ellipse and inner ellipse of the uppercase O (Figure 7) are closest together and measuring that point’s angle to the center of the glyph. Intuitively picture the inner and outer ellipses as rails; the goal is to see where a ball that rolls between those rails fits the tightest.
Mathematically, the location can be found by locating the smallest value returned when measuring a line that is tangent to the outer ellipse to where that line crosses the inner ellipse. Once that point is determined a line is drawn from that point to the center of the glyph. The line formed is the StressUp value. The StressUp measurement is used to determine Stroke Variation.
The uppercase S glyph is used to measure the SWid(Figure 6) variable. This horizontal measurement is taken from the left-most extent of the upper bowl to the right-most extent of the lower bowl. Because these two points will not fall on the same horizontal plane, skewing is required for italic glyphs. The skewing angle used for this measurement should be the same as that derived in the Letterform digit (the eighth PANOSE digit). If the font being classified is designed with oblique vertical stems, complete the Letterform classification prior to measuring the SWid. The SWid measurement is used to determine Proportion.
The upper section of the serif tip radius, UTipRad (Figure 3), is measured on the lower left serif of the uppercase I. This measurement defines the radius of the largest possible circle drawn within the upper portion of the serif tip while retaining the maximum points of tangency. This measurement will usually exist in glyphs with cove or exaggerated serifs. Square serifs, thin line serifs, and triangle serifs will often have zero UTipRad. The UTipRad measurement is used to determine Serif Style.
This variable is assigned by measuring the stem of the uppercase O glyph where it is thickest. Often this will be at the right or left-most extent of the letter-form, measured in a horizontal line. The WideO(Figure 7) measurement is used to determine Contrast.
The width of the vertical stem, WStem(Figure 5), is measured horizontally at the x-height of the uppercase E. The E stem weight is taken at a point half way between the upper two arms. This measurement is the width of the vertical stem, or back bone, of the character. This measurement is to be taken perpendicular to the stem. In the case of an oblique letter, the horizontal axis is shifted to be perpendicular to the stem. The WStem measurement is used to determine Serif Style, Weight, and Midline.
XTall(Figure 13) is the measurement of the lowercase characters from the baseline vertically to the upper extent of the upper left stem of the lowercase x. The XTall measurement is used to determine X-height.
7.0 Calculated Variables
AArm = MidA / CapH Midline
ArmDif = EArm - AArm Midline
ASer = (ASerL + ASerR) / 2 Midline
CalcEm = CapH * 1.5 Proportion
CentProp = CentDist / OTall Letterform
ConRat = NarO / WideO Contrast
CurvRat = ArmCurv / CapH Arm Style
CutRat = CutCountLo / CutCountHi Arm Style
CuspRat = SerOff / WStem Serif Style
DropRat = Drop / (SerWidL-HipRad) Serif Style
DuckRat = AAcTall / CapH X-height
EArm = MidE / CapH Midline
FlatRat = TipSum / SerTip Serif Style
FootRat = FootWid / WStem Serif Style
HipRat = SerWidL-UTipRad / HipRad Serif Style
InCurv = InMid / InRad Stroke Variation
JMRat = JWid / MWid Proportion
ORat = OTall / OWid Proportion
OutCurv = OutMid / OutRad Stroke Variation,
PropRat = WideRat / ThinRat Proportion
RonRat = StemCor / WStem Serif Style
SerOb = EWid / EOut Serif Style
SerProp = SerTall / CapH Serif Style
SerRat = SerTip / SerWidL Serif Style
SerSize = SerWidL / CapH Serif Style
Speed = OutCurv / InCurv Stroke Variation
StepRat = SerTip / SerTall Serif Style
SymRat = SerWidL / SerWidR Serif Style
TaperRat = ArmAHi / ArmALo Arm Style
ThinAv = (EWid + SWid) / 2 Proportion
ThinRat = CalcEm / ThinAv Proportion
TipRat = SerTip / WStem Serif Style
TipSum = UTipRad + LTipRad Serif Style
TRadAv = (UTipRad + LTipRad) / 2 Serif Style
TrimRat = ACap / WStem Midline
WeightRat = CapH / WStem Weight
WideAv = (OWid + HWid) / 2 Proportion
WideRat = CalcEm / WideAv Proportion
XRat = XTall / CapH X-height
8.0 PANOSE Submission form
Font Name :
PANOSE number :
Attach a copy of the PANOSE Classification sheet shown in section 9.
9.0 Sample PANOSE Classification sheet
Source : Hewlett - Packard Company. Contact : Karl Leuthold
Font name: Teras Sans Book Size:120 pt Date: 02/14/97 11:23 AM
[480 pt O]
12/02/96 Lipkie Removed all TC fields from headings and paragraphs and use a special TOC command that collects paragraphs of style Headline, Head and Sub 1.
12/3/96 Lipkie Convert to outline format for headings
12/10/96 McGill Change Square, Swash Variants, and Shadow illustrations.
12/19/96 McGill Change Handwritten Finials Examples and Page numbers
12/20/96 McGill Replace Wrapping Measure illustration
12/23/96 McGill Work on measurement figures to make them more uniform.
1/2/97 McGill Add Distressed Treatment example
1/28/97 McGill Edited chapters 1 and 2 with Ben B. and broke into multiple documents.
2/13/97 McGill Added several new illustrations
2/18/97 McGill Converted to HTML